Polyclonal Anti- 4-Hydroxynonenal Antiserum
The peroxidation of membrane lipids by free radicals is a well-controlled, ongoing process that occurs during normal cell turnover and the normal aging process. There is also the uncontrolled process of free radical production and increased lipid peroxidation that is associated with hepatic injury as a consequence of exposure to halogenated hydrocarbons, excessive alcohol abuse, and acute or chronic iron overload. Excess free radical production and lipid peroxidation is thought to be an etiological factor in such diseases as atherosclerosis, diabetes, genetic hemochromatosis, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease.
4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE) is a highly reactive, cytotoxic aldehyde that is released during the oxidation of w-6-unsaturated fatty acids. HNE can efficiently react with sulfhydryl groups or histidine and lysine groups of proteins to form stable HNE-protein adducts, in addition to phospholipids and nucleic acids. It is through this HNE-modification of biomolecules that HNE is thought to exert its cytotoxic effects. This multifunctional molecule may be considered as a “second toxic messenger,” which disseminates and augments initial free radical events. It is believed to be largely responsible for the cytopathological effects observed during oxidative stress. High levels of 4-HNE have been detected in a large number of disease states, indicating some involvement of this aldehyde in their pathogenesis. Some of the prominent pathobiochemical effects of 4-HNE are its stimulation of fibrogenesis and inflammation. This indicates a potential contribution to the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, the progression of which is supported by inflammatory reactions and characterized by fibrosis. 4-HNE may also play a role in carcinogenesis due to its ability to modulate cell proliferation through interference with the activity of cyclins and protein kinases and inhibiting the apoptotic response.
A goat antiserum to 4-HNE is currently available. This antiserum has been shown to be immunoreactive with 4-HNE-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) by ELISA. Additionally, this antibody has been shown by ELISA to have minimum cross-reactivity with other aldehyde-BSA conjugates, making it highly specific for 4-HNE. Western blot analysis demonstrtes that the antiserum is capable of detecting proteins modified by HNE-adducts. This product should be a valuable tool for scientists working to understand the role of 4-HNE in the pathogenesis of various diseases.
4-HNE-modified BSA (Cat no. HMP044H), which can be used as a positive control or to neutralize immunoreactivity, is also available.
Boon, P.J.M., et al. Tox. Appl. Pharmacol. 159:214-223, 1999.
|Form:||Whole Serum - liquid|
|Supplied as:||1 ml vials or bulk quantities|
Reported working dilution using neat serum:*
*Various assay conditions require that the optimum working concentrations be determined by serial dilutions of this product.
|0.1% Sodium Azide|
|Storage:||Short term: Refrigerate at 4˚ C|
|Long term: Freeze at -20˚ C|
FOR RESEARCH AND MANUFACTURING USE ONLY.
N/D = Not determined.
[Home ] [Company] [New Products] [Protocols] [Contact Us]