Polyclonal Anti- Heptanone-etheno-2′-Deoxycytidine
The reaction of the
lipid peroxidation product 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE) with 2’-deoxycystindine
results in the formation of the DNA adduct
Analysis of DNA adducts in various human tissues demonstrate that HεdC is ubiquitous to many, if not all, human tissues.
In several cases extremely high levels of these DNA adducts were
found suggesting that they can represent significant DNA modifications
with the potential for deleterious effects on human health.
HεdC has been shown to be highly mutagenic in both
bacterial and human cells. When
adduct was placed in a plasmid that was replicated in both bacterial and
human cells, it was able to completely block DNA replication in the
bacteria and only small fractions of progeny were detected in the human
cells suggesting that HεdC
is a very strong block to DNA synthesis.
Additionally, HεdC also strongly miscodes when bypassed in bacterial
and human cell systems resulting in a miscoding frequency of about 45% and
HεdC has been found to be the most abundant DNA adduct
in a colorectal cancer model where COX-2 is up-regulated.
While COX-2 levels are low to undetectable in normal intestinal
cells, toxic insults can lead to increased oxidative stress which produces
an increase in reactive oxygen species leading to an increase in COX-2
levels. The decomposition of
polyunsaturated fatty acids by COX-2 can lead to increased production of
ONE and the subsequent modification of 2’-deoxycystindine to form HεdC.
Using a mouse colorectal cancer model where the min mice produce excess
COX-2 and are more likely to have spontaneous colorectal cancer than the
wild type mice, it has been shown that increased levels of COX-2 lead to
increased levels of HεdC.
Additionally, min mice have a statistically higher level of
intestinal HεdC than the wild type mice.
HεdC has also been found to be the most abundant DNA adduct in
breast epithelial cells that overexpress COX-2.
A goat antiserum to
heptanone-etheno-2’-deoxycystindine (HεdC) is currently available.
This antiserum has been shown to be immunoreactive with HεdC
-modified bovine serum albumin (BSA) by ELISA and shows little
cross-reactivity with other nucleotides. This antibody should be
a valuable tool for scientists working to understand the role of
COX-2-mediated DNA damage and HεdC ‘s role in tumorigenesis.
It may also be a possible biomarker for increased cancer risk.
|Form:||Whole Serum - liquid|
|Supplied as:||1 ml vials or bulk quantities|
Reported working dilution using neat serum:*
*Various assay conditions require that the optimum working concentrations be determined by serial dilutions of this product.
|0.1% Sodium Azide|
|Storage:||Short term: Refrigerate at 4˚ C|
|Long term: Freeze at -20˚ C|
FOR RESEARCH AND MANUFACTURING USE ONLY.
N/D = Not determined.
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