Polyclonal Anti- Neuroketals Antiserum 

Cat. No: GPA046H       

Neuroketals and neuroprostanes are a class of compounds that result from the oxidation of docosahexenoic acid (DHA), which is enriched in the brain and retina, especially the synaptic membranes and retina.  DHA is a membrane polyunsaturated fatty acid that is especially vulnerable to free radical attack because hydrogen radicals easily remove its double bonds.  The DHA is oxidized to isoprostane-like compounds called neuroprostanes, which can dehydrate to form highly reactive A4/J4 neuroprostanes .  Neuroprostanes can also undergo rearrangement to form D- and E-ring neuroprostanes.  These reactive neuroprostanes are called neuroketals because DHA is so concentrated in the nervous system.

The fact that DHA is prone to free radical attack and free radicals has been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimerís, Parkinsonís, Hunningtonís, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and AIDS dementia) may make neuroketals a unique and prominent marker of oxidative injury in the brain.  The brain may especially susceptible to oxidative injury due to its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids, its high oxygen consumption rate and itís relative lack of antioxidant defenses.  NK protein adducts have been shown to occur in normal human brain, suggesting ongoing oxidative stress in the brain.  Adduction of critical proteins by NK may be highly injurious to neurons and may be very important in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases associated with increased oxidative stress.  Since neuroprostanes are increased in the brains and CSF of Alzheimerís disease patients, reactive NK formed through the neuroprostane pathway may play a major role in oxidative brain injury.

A goat antiserum to an oxidized DHA-conjugate is currently available. This NK antiserum has been shown to be immunoreactive with a neuroketal/neuroprostane-modified protein by ELISA. It has also beenwpe2B.jpg (12339 bytes) shown to detect several major and many minor human brain protein modifications by western blot.  Because neuroketals and neuroprostanes are not species-specific, this antibody should be applicable detect these compounds in a number of species.  This antibody should be a valuable tool for scientists working to understand the role of neuroketal/neuroprostane modification in neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

A neuroketal-BSA conjugate is available as a positive control (Cat no. HMP046H) which can also be used to neutralize immunoreactivity.

Manufacturing Reference:  Sparkman, D.R. and Sparkman, B.A.  (2003) Presentation at the annual meeting for the Society for Neuroscience in New Orleans.


Lot No: 111002A
Host: Goat
Clone: Polyclonal
Immunogen: Neuroketal- Conjugate
Form: Whole Serum - liquid
Concentration: N/A
Supplied as: 1 ml vials or bulk quantities
Titer: Reported working dilution using neat serum:**
bulletELISA using immunizing peptide: >1:4,000
bulletIHC using paraffin sections:  >1:200
bulletIHC using frozen sections: N/D
bulletWestern blots:  >1:2,000

**Various assay conditions require that the optimum working concentrations be determined by serial dilutions of this product.

Specificity: Neuroketal-adducted proteins


        options: None
0.01% Thimerosal
0.1% Sodium Azide
Storage: Short term: Refrigerate at 4˚ C
Long term: Freeze at -20˚ C


N/D = Not determined.

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